Oahu Elepaio

Chasiempis ibidis

Order

PASSERIFORMES

Family

Monarch-flycatchers (Monarchidae)

Code 4

OAEL

Code 6

CHASAN

ITIS

Breeding Type:

Monogamous



Egg Color:

White with red-brown markings.



Number of Eggs:

1 - 3



Incubation Days:

18



Egg Incubator:

Both sexes



Nest Location:

Usually in a fork of native or non native trees.



Nest Material:

Rootlets, grasses, spider webs, and bark.



Migration:

Nonmigratory



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General

Oahu Elepaio: Small monarch flycatcher found on the island of Oahu. Crown and back are dark brown; white underparts extend to the flanks, with buff flanks and breast. White lores, dark ear patch, rufous forehead. Upperparts, especially the head are rust-colored. Black throat feathers have white tips. Wing bars, rump are white, long brown tail is white-tipped. Sexes are similar; females may be whiter on the throat. Juvenile is buff colored with brown wings and tail and dirty white underparts. Outer tail feathers have white tips.

Range and Habitat

Oahu Elepaio: This species is endemic only to Oahu. There are several fragmented and declining populations in the wet mixed-species forests in the Waianaes and Southern Ko'olau Mountain ranges. These birds are most commonly found at elevations from 650' to 2,600' above sea level on mountain slopes and in valleys.

Breeding and Nesting

Oahu Elepaio: One to three white eggs with red-brown markings are laid in a woven cup-shaped nest built in ohia and other trees. Both sexes incubate the eggs for 18 days. Chicks fledge after 16 days but continue to be fed by their parents for more than a month.

Foraging and Feeding

Oahu Elepaio: They have a variety of foraging behaviors, perhaps wider than any other bird. They catch insects in the air like a flycatcher, glean insects off leaves like a warbler, cling to trunks like a nuthatch, hop on the ground like a thrush, and hang upside-down like a chickadee. They feed on a wide variety of arthropods, commonly insects and spiders.

Vocalization

Oahu Elepaio: A loud whistled "el-e-pai-o" song, chattering contact calls, and a scolding "chit-chit" call.

Similar Species

Oahu Elepaio: Japanese Bush-Warbler has a dark eye line and cream eyebrow. African Silverbill has a blue eye ring and a conical, blue-gray bill.

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UnderpartsX

Belly, undertail coverts, chest, flanks, and foreneck.

UpperpartsX
Back, rump, hindneck, wings, and crown.
BreastX
The upper front part of a bird.
CrownX
The crown is the top part of the birds head.
Ear patchX
Consists of soft, loose-webbed feathers on the side of the bird's head below and behind the eyes.
Outer tail feathersX
The tail feathers farthest from the center.
RumpX
The area between the uppertail coverts and the back of the bird.
Parts of a Standing bird X
Head Feathers and Markings X
Parts of a Flying bird X