Apapane

Himatione sanguinea

Order

PASSERIFORMES

Family

Fringilline and Cardueline Finches and Allies (Fringillidae)

Code 4

APAP

Code 6

HIMSAN

ITIS

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ILLUSTRATION

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Copyright © 2004 - 2014 Mitch Waite Group

PHOTOS

PHOTOS 1200

CONSERVATION STATUS

Least Concern

The Apapane is a small Hawaiian Honeycreeper native to the Hawaiian Islands. It breeds in wet Hawaiian forests above 3,000 feet in elevation on most of the Hawaiian Islands. This species feeds on nectar from the ohia and other tree species, and gleans invertebrates from foliage in the tops of trees. Nests are placed high in trees, although they have also nested in lava tubes and tree cavities. The conservation rating for the Apapane is Least Concern, although threats are posed by avian malaria and introduced predators.

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BACKYARD BIRDING

BIRDS AND BIRDING

PHOTO SHARING AND DISCUSSION

SUMMARY

Overview

Apapane: This is a small songbird with dark red plumage overall, a white vent and underbelly, and black wings and tail. The black bill is medium in length and decurved. It has an undulating flight, alternating several rapid wing beats with wings pulled to the sides. Apapane are primarily nectarivorous but occasionally take insects and spiders. Both sexes look similar.


Range and Habitat North America

Apapane: Breeds above 3,000 feet in wet, tropical evergreen forests on all of the large Hawaiian Islands. After breeding, wanders in search of flowering trees, and some birds occur down to and below 1,500 feet. Habitat includes mesic and wet forests at elevations above 1,000 meters Hawaii, Maui, and Kauai. Locally common at higher elevations on O'ahu. Endemic to the Hawaiian islands.


Range and Habitat Hawaii

Apapane: Breeds above 3,000 feet in wet, mesic and tropical evergreen forests on Maui, Kauai, and Hawaii. On Ohau, it is locally common at higher elevations. This birds rarely occur on Lanai and Molokai. After breeding, individuals wander in search of flowering trees; some birds occur down to and below 1,500 feet.

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INTERESTING FACTS

  • A subspecies that occurred on Laysan Island went extinct in 1923 as a result of introduced rabbits denuding the island of vegetation.
  • The Apapane is one of the few Hawaiian Honeycreepers not threatened with extinction and they may be evolving resistance to avian malaria, one of the main threats to members of this subfamily.
  • A group of honeycreepers are collectively known as a "hive" of honeycreepers.
  • The Apapane feeds heavily upon nectar from the Ohia tree and is one of its most important pollinators.

SIMILAR BIRDS

RANGE MAP NORTH AMERICA

About this North America Map

If displayed, the purpose of this map is to show how this species is distributed in North America.

Range Map for Apapane HD

RANGE MAP HAWAII

About this Hawaii Map

If displayed, the purpose of this map is to show how this species is distributed across the Hawaiian island chains.

Range Map Hawaii for Apapane

FAMILY DESCRIPTION



SONGS AND CALLS

David Kuhn Sound

Apapane 1

  • Title: Apapane 1
  • Recordist: David Kuhn
  • Description: "Zeerr" calls.
  • Location: HI
  • Date: "6/16/2014"

"Zeerr" calls.

Apapane 2

  • Title: Apapane 2
  • Recordist: David Kuhn
  • Description: "Tseet" call notes given in flight.
  • Location: HI
  • Date: "6/16/2014"

"Tseet" call notes given in flight.

Apapane 3

  • Title: Apapane 3
  • Recordist: David Kuhn
  • Description: Juvenile call is a raspy, down-slurred "zseet".
  • Location: HI
  • Date: "6/16/2014"

Juvenile call is a raspy, down-slurred "zseet".

Apapane 4

  • Title: Apapane 4
  • Recordist: David Kuhn
  • Description: Song is varied, and includes whistled and squeaky notes.
  • Location: HI
  • Date: "6/16/2014"

Song is varied, and includes whistled and squeaky notes.

Apapane 5

  • Title: Apapane 5
  • Recordist: David Kuhn
  • Description: Typical song
  • Location: HI
  • Date: "6/16/2014"

Typical song

Apapane 6

  • Title: Apapane 6
  • Recordist: David Kuhn
  • Description: Whisper song
  • Location: HI
  • Date: "6/16/2014"

Whisper song

Apapane 7

  • Title: Apapane 7
  • Recordist: David Kuhn
  • Description: Various whistles
  • Location: HI
  • Date: "6/16/2014"

Various whistles

Apapane 8

  • Title: Apapane 8
  • Recordist: David Kuhn
  • Description: Calls include rattles, squeaks, and whistles.
  • Location: HI
  • Date: "6/16/2014"

Calls include rattles, squeaks, and whistles.

Similar Sounding Hawaii David Kuhn

Yellow-fronted Canary 1

  • Title: Yellow-fronted Canary 1
  • Recordist: David Kuhn
  • Description: Song is a melodic series of whistles and trills.
  • Location: HI
  • Date: "6/16/2014"

Song is a melodic series of whistles and trills.

Voice Text

"Tweet tweet"

TERMINOLOGY

CREDITS

Artist

Michael Oberhofer

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VentX
Birds do not have two separate cavities for excrement and reproduction like humans do. In birds, there is one single entrance/exit that suits both functions called the vent, cloaca or anus.
Parts of a Standing bird X
Head Feathers and Markings X
Parts of a Flying bird X