Hawaii Akepa

Loxops coccineus




Fringilline & Cardueline Finches (Fringillidae)

Code 4


Code 6



Breeding Type:


Egg Color:


Number of Eggs:

1 - 2

Incubation Days:


Egg Incubator:


Nest Location:

Cavities in oha lehua, and koa trees.

Nest Material:

No data.





Hawaii Akepa: Small songbird with yellow bill, black legs and feet, black wings and a long notched tail. Narrow conical bill ranging in color from gray to pale orange with crossed, or slightly offset, mandibles. Rest of plumage of adult male is yellow to orange-red with dark brown remiges and covers; female and juvenile plumage is olive with gray on front and back. Underparts are pale gray with yellow plumage around the belly and undertail coverts; black legs and eyes. Second-year male orange-brown above, yellow below; bill becomes lighter. Name was changed from Akepa to Hawaii Akepa in 2015 by the American Ornithologist Union.

Breeding and Nesting

Hawaii Akepa: Nest building occurs in spring and is done by the female, in a tree cavity of the ohia or koa trees. A clutch of one to three eggs is laid and incubated by the female for 14 to 16 days. Once the eggs have hatched, the male helps with the chicks. Fledging occurs from April to June with the fledglings remaining near their parents until fall, at which point they join foraging flocks.

Foraging and Feeding

Hawaii Akepa: These birds use a specialized bill to pry open the flower buds of the ohia tree and forage in the bark of the koa tree to catch caterpillars and small arthropods. They feed extensively on small insects, spiders and caterpillars. The blossom of the Ohia tree provides a source of nectar that this bird consumes occasionally.


Hawaii Akepa: Call is a short warbled "teedle-ee-dee" or "teedleee", or a short up slurred "sweet" occasionally given in a rapid series if they are alarmed. Advertising song is a trill that varies in cadence or pitch. Whisper song is complex and long consisting of warbles, trills and chirps.

Similar Species

Hawaii Akepa: Iiwi has strongly decurved bill and solid black wings and tail. Apapane has solid black bill, wings, and tail, and white vent and underbelly.


Belly, undertail coverts, chest, flanks, and foreneck.

The ventral part of the bird, or the area between the flanks on each side and the crissum and breast. Flight muscles are located between the belly and the breast.
Refers to the flight feathers-primaries, secondaries, and tertials.
Parts of a Standing bird X
Head Feathers and Markings X
Parts of a Flying bird X